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Protocols and Reagents

We are happy to share the protocols and reagents that we have developed for localization of leptospiral proteins.

Bioinformatic Tools.  The following are bioinformatic tools that we have found to be useful:


Membrane Proteins.  Multiple methods should be employed to experimentally verify outer membrane integration and surface exposure.  The following are links to papers describing methods for identification of surface-exposed outer membrane proteins:


Control Antisera.  It is essential to include both positive and negative controls when studying the location of membrane proteins.  We are happy to provide antisera to the following proteins:

Positive Controls:


Negative Controls:


If you would like us to send a small amount of any of these antisera, send an email with your name and mailing address to: David A. Haake


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